GRAHAM E. ROTHERAY, FRANCIS GILBERT (2008) Phylogenetic relationships and the larval head of the lower Cyclorrhapha (Diptera). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 153 (2) , 287–323. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2008.00395.x
The results show that the lower Cyclorrhapha is paraphyletic in relation to the higher Cyclorrhapha. The monophyly of the Cyclorrhapha is strongly supported. The lower Cyclorrhapha is resolved into two clades, based on the Lonchopteridae. Within the Syrphidae the traditional three-subfamily system is supported, based on the Microdontinae.