A man may have been cured of both HIV and leukaemia after receiving a stem-cell transplant from a donor who is genetically resistant to HIV.
About two years after the procedure, there is still no sign of the virus, even though the patient no longer takes antiretroviral drugs.
original paper http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/short/360/7/692 Long-Term Control of HIV by CCR5 Delta32/Delta32 Stem-Cell Transplantation Hütter et al. 2009 Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires the presence of a CD4 receptor and a chemokine receptor, principally chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5). Homozygosity for a 32-bp deletion in the CCR5 allele provides resistance against HIV-1 acquisition. We transplanted stem cells from a donor who was homozygous for CCR5 delta32 in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia and HIV-1 infection. The patient remained without viral rebound 20 months after transplantation and discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. This outcome demonstrates the critical role CCR5 plays in maintaining HIV-1 infection.